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"0 TT — (^ 

compiled for the Gaelic 
by the 


Rev*Peter ? Leary,P,P # 












24 Uppek O'Conneix Street. 








My mind has been much exercised for some time over 
the position of persons who are anxious to learn Irish. 
There are two classes who wish to learn, viz., those 
who can speak Irish and those who cannot. Those 
who can speak it wish to learn to read it. Those who 
can neither speak nor read it wish to learn both. For 
the use of both classes there is nothing available but 
Father O'Growney's little books. 

The Gaelic Journal is a splendid publication. There 
is more solid erudition within its small compass than 
within the compass of any English Journal twenty 
times its size. But it is only useful to learners when 
they have acquired a fairly good knowledge of the 
language. Even the grammatical and critical matter 
which is contained in it is not appreciated by those 
who do not know Irish. No one has ever yet learned 
a language' from its grammar. In fact, a person must 
know the language before he can understand the 

Then what about the other Irish matter which can 
be had in those volumes whose contents have been 
taken from the works of Irish writers of Keating's 


I have to state as a positive fact, that, as far as 
learners are concerned, whether they be learners who 
can already speak Irish, or learners who cannot, those 
volumes are many degrees worse than useless. The 
very first page of any of these books, and I sa} r it from 
positive experience, is enough to frighten even a 
fluent Irish sneaker from any further effort at be- 
coming an Irish reader, unless he be a person of iron 
determination. Fortunately we have in considerable 
abundance people of that stamp. Persons whom even 
a sensation like intermittent lock-jav T cannot frighten 
from the work. But when a fluent Irish speaker, 
whose native Irish voedbjlary is overflowing with 
wealth, and whose organs of speech can use that 
vocabulary like rolling music, when he. I say. looks at 
the page of an Ossianic society volume, and finds him- 
self threatened with lock-jaw almost at every sentence, 
he naturally comes to the conclusion that there is 
something wrong. He does not know what is wrong, 
but he lays down the volume. 

The learner who never spoke a word of Irish is in a 
far worse plight. He does not suspect that there is 
anything wrong. He straggles onward through the 
Easy Lessons, through the Ossianic volume, lock-iaw 
and all. Then he gets among the people, and lo ! not 
a syllable of the peoples language can lie understand. 

What is it that is wrong ? There are a good many 
tilings wrong, but the whole evil can be reduced to 
this one fact. For a living language, the books and 
the speech of the people should go hand in hand. 
What is printed in the books should be the exact 
representation of what comes out of the people's 


mouths. The Irish of our Ossianic books is of course 
not essentially different from the Irish which I speak. 
But if I were to meet my neighbours who do not read 
Irish ; and if I were to speak to them in the Ossianic 
style, matters would soon come to a dead lock. 

Why not give the people their own speech ! That 
is what is wrong. What would be the result if a 
person who can speak English and who wishes to 
learn to read it, were to have an unmodernised copy 
of Bacon placed in his hand ? He would learn his 
book-lesson, but he would find that it would set his 
neighbours laughing at him. It would effectually 
prevent that man from learning to read. Suppose 
him a person who knows no English at all, what is 
his position ? It is exactly that of the Irish learner 
who knows no Irish at all, and who is floundering 
through an Ossianic book. 

The position of those two classes of Irish learners 
has been a trouble to me for a long time. In order to 
try and do something to remedy the evil I have 
written the following phrase-book. 

In constructing it I have made it a point not only 
to give in the phrases the living language of the 
people as far as syntax and style of speech is concerned, 
but also to strip the individual words, as far as pos- 
sible, of the encumbrances with which centuries of 
neglect must have naturally incrusted their written 
forms. It is these incrustations that paralyse the 
efforts of the book-learner. It is the total absence of 
them that makes the spoken language so smooth. 

For example; everybody has heard of the rule 
called caoI te c-aoU Now as a matter of fact this ia 


not a rule. It is a phonetic truth. It is a truth 
which belongs to the nature of Irish speech. Accord- 
ing to the nature of Irish speech a consonant cannot 
be sounded broad if it be in contact with a slender 
vowel. And again, the moment a consonant has be- 
come slender a broad vowel cannot continue in contact 
with it. Take for example the word cac. If the 
diminutive -in i- to be added to it the c becomes 
slender on account of the 1 of -in. Then, because Hie 
u has become slender, the preceding broad a cannot 
remain in contact with it. The organs of speech, to 
the distinct knowledge and cognizance of the eeir, in- 
troduce a slight 1 -sound before the c. 

It is not a ride. It is a natural law of Irish arti- 
culation. That law is as vigorous now in the spoken 
Irish as ever it was. It was not made by scholars > 
nor by bards, nor by grammarians. It belongs by 
nature to the lancmao;e. It must be admitted that the 
thought of introducing it into the spelling of the 
words was a magnificent thought. It has been a most 
fortunate thing for us and for our language that the 
ears of our fathers were so good, and that they gave 
us the result in black and white. Had they not done 
so. and had our language ceased to be spoken without 
any person's having called attention to that law. the 
knowledge of its existence would have been lost. 

But the principle has been fearfully abused. It 
has been looked upon as a mere spelling-rule. The 
result has been that writers, without anv regard to 
the ear, have merely followed the eye. They have 
acted as a person would act who. instead of c*Mcin ; 
would write cacaoÍíi. The latter form observes the 


" rule? but there is danger of lock-jaw in trying to 
pronounce it, even for a habitual Irish speaker. Such 
writers have insisted upon observing the " rule " no 
matter how many consonants may come between the 
two vowels. They will, for example, write tou^ilpe^. 
I have never heard that word out of any person's 
mouth. I have always heard btuitjMft. But I have 
heard tntAiLceAfr not oimiIc^. I have never heard 
cuíbeAjMó, but always cuítijMó. 

It will not be easy to get rid of these incrustations 
all of a sudden. In fact it would be dangerous. All 
the pruning should not be done at once. Still there 
is no harm in making a beginning. That beginning 
should be made, taking the ear as guide. The prin- 
ciple in question belongs exclusively to the ear. It 
has nothing whatever to do with the orthography of 
the language. 

There are several other things which require clipping. 
I have never heard t oe j i\\eAt> = end ) but always -oeife. 
I have never heard Aigne^-ó =mind, but always Ai^ne. 
Am I expected to go on writing what I have never 
heard ? I have always heard distinctly the " nn ,; at 
the end of such words as $diiti = scarce, ^Aww^weak, 
but I have never heard it at the end of the third 
person singular of a verb. Then why should I write 
into the word a sound which I have never heard there ? 

Then what of the authority of the past ? In the 
first place I don't give much for the authority of 
people who turned a phonetic law into a spelling-rule. 
In the second place, if we go back as far as true 
authority we find that those double letters were then 
distinctly heard — tin and rra were written one for the 


other, and j\|\ was sounded like the present fit. I have 
myself distinctly heard coftfuvo pronounced coptAo. 

In the following pages, as a step towards the simpli- 
fication of our spelling, the use of double consonants 
is omitted when possible. Such an omission is of 
course impossible in such words as gAtin (scarce), -p^rm 
{weak), etc.,. because the effect of the omission would 
be to produce other words with both a different sound 
and a different meaning. 

The reader is to take it for granted that the sound 
represented by "tin" is quite different from that 
represented by " n." 

With regard to " : ftv' ^ nas been found necessary 
to avoid it altogether. It is always equivalent either 
to "ji" or to "ft." Hence "p" or " pt" have been 
substituted for it in the following pages. 

The chief purpose of this First Part is to teach the 
syntax which regulates the use of the two link-words 
".if" and "cÁ." 

A Second Part is to follow, which will illustrate in 
copious detail the forms and uses of the Irish verb. 
Also a Third Part; which will deal with the syntax of 
those words which express relation. 

The learner may rest assured that not a single word 
wr phrase has beeri invented. They are all, without 
exception, actual living speech. There is not an 
Irish-speaking old person in Minister who would not 
understand every word and every phrase at once. 
Still the learner will find the syntax throughout most 
perfect., and most rigidly adhered to, in such a manner 
that he cannot fail to be astounded when he remem- 
bers that this wonderfully symmetrical phraseology 


has been for centuries the every day dialogue of 
millions of people who could neither read nor write. 

For example ; in the whole range of the language 
there is not a single exception to the rule which says 
that f 'ip" takes the predicate next to it, and that 
" zá v takes the subject next to it. Now, in English 
common conversation there are hundreds of instances 
in the use of the verb to be, in which no person can 
tell which of the two nominative cases is the subject. 

That is only one out of the numberless beauties 
which await the learner. 

A most useful exercise for the learner will be, after 
having mastered the meaning of each phrase, to take 
it asunder, and to distinguish carefully the link-word, 
the subject or nominative case, and the predicate, that 
is the piece of information which is given concerning 
the subject. Thus : — - 

1f -Airnrhíge bó = A cow is an animal. 
1f, the link; bó, the subject; Airnrhige, the infor- 
mation given regarding the cow. 
JZÁ An bó } wa f e^f Am = The cow is standing. 
O, the link; An bó, the subject; 'na f e^jMtr., the 

information given. 
if 'r\A fe^jMtri azá An bó = It is standing the cow is. 
1f , the link ; azá An bó, the subject ; } t\A re^jMrh, 
the information which is given regarding the 
position in which the coiv is. 
(T)eifnn) gup bó i = (I say) that she is a cow. gup, 
the link; i, the subject; bó, the information given 
regarding i. 

]3eAT>A\\ ua t^og^ipe. 


«10) A VTT» " 

1S" AND "UA." 

I. ff 1f/ J or any part of it, is the link between two 
substantives, or between two modes, as "1f 
-Airnmige t)ó ,J ; " If 'nd f eAjwrii azá rí" 

II. fí UÁ," or any part of it, is the link between a 
substantive and any of its modes, as " zá ^n 
oó 'n^ poáfAiii"; "uá fi «43 fiúrj^t." 

III. The predicate comes next to rc if," the subject 
comes next to " cÁ." " &z& " is the relative 
form of K cÁ." "If" can be very often 



Present Time. 

1f t)|Ae^g An IÁ é. It is a fine day. 

1f 1Á bfiex\g é. 
If |?e-á|\ tAi*oifv é. 
1f LáiTHf -AH f eaf é. 
1f é at\ f:e^|\ LÁi*oif é. 
1f t^i*oi|\ aca f é. 
TlÁc LÁiT)if Ató f é ! 

UÁ f é Ld^. 
TLÁ f é 50 Lag. 
1f Lag acá fé. 
O f é -Ati^ 1^5. 

It is a fine day. 

He is a strong man. 

He is a strong man. 

He is a strong man. 

He is strong. 

How strong he is ! (Lit. 

Isn't it strong he is !) 
He is weak. 
He is weak. 
He is very weak. 
He is very weak. 
He is very weak. 

"CÁ f é 50 Yi-avia IA5 **f f *vo. He is very weak entirely. 
<Cá An T>on^f te Lai^e xMf . He is excessively weak. 

1f fe^|\ tThcet. 

If pe^f rriAit tTlicet. 

If pe^f 5-áti rh^it tTlicet. 

If p e^f tne^tcd é. 

pe-Af me&tzA. 
O 'Cav's 1 iV f e^f. 
"CÁ f é 1 íV feA\\ rhóf . 
"Cá f é 1 tV f ex\f oe^. 

Michael is a man. 
Michael is a good man. 
Michael is a useless man. 
He is a good-for-nothing 

A man who is a failure. 
Thade is a man. 
He is a big man. 
He is a little man. 


1f T)|aoc t)iiine é. 
1r T) 111 ne pógAtiUA é. 

If UvVtArh fógAtiUA é. 

1f CAittue An CAtArii é. 
1f CAiltce Aii Aimfif i. 

1f CvMltue Ati IÁ" é. 

1f c^ttce An IÁ é le ptice. 

If cAittce A*óeinif ofim é. 

If "oeAf ah t>UACAit cu ! 

If tllAlf ATI CfllAll a^au é! 

Hi triífoe belt a$ ottác 

o|\c ! 
Hi ri-eA*ó 50 *oeirhiti, 
Hi cloc lAfiAn. 

11 Í n-ATMTIvVO ctoc. 

Hi peóil Atnrkvo. 

11 í CnÁtíl A"ÓAflC. 

11 í fioriA c|\oiceAti. 
II í teAÚAf potiA. 
11 í fuil mrse. 
11 í h-tiifge bAitine. 

11í tx\irme DioCvMte. 
ílí sAiriini cfé. 
11 í CjAé gAitum. 
Tlí SAimtti 5|\ev\n. 

tlí 5|\eAn SAirmri. 
ílí tnóin 5V1AÍ. 

He is a bad man. 

He is a good man, i.e., he 
is a man who does good 
to others. 

It is good land, i.e., kind, 
productive land. 

It is dreadfully bad land. 

It is terrible weather. 

It is a frightful day. 

It is a frightful day, it is 
so wet. 

You have treated me scur- 

You are a nice boy ! 

You have done well ! 

It is no harm to be depend- 
ing on vou ! 

No indeed. 

Iron is not stone. 

Stone is not wood. 

Wood is not flesh. 

Horn is not bone. 

Skin is not hair. 

Hair is not leather. 

Water is not blood. 

Milk is not water. 

Spirit is not milk. 

Earth is not sand. 

Sand is not earth. 

Gravel is not sand. 

Sand is not gravel 

Coal is not turf. 


11í ^uáI tnóin. 
Hí T)m\XeAX)Ai(\ -pétift. 
Hi cjvAnn CAbÁMf'ze. 
tlí cAtráfpce c|\Ann. 
11 í c.dtu\irce péóit. 
Tli peóit e.\tKÁifce. 
tlí ptú]A imn. 
Tlí min ptú|\. 

Tlí t)Ó CApAt. 
11i OAp^L t)Ó. 

II í s^mum fiojvAó. * 
ílí flOfldC c^p^t. 
tlí 50|AC S^jldÍT). 

11 í cfuiiúneAcc ó|\n,d. 
Tlí coi|\ce cjuntne<\cu. 

Hí ptiínf eóg cotl. 
11 i tnif o Uxvó^. 
Hi Uxvóg mife. 

An xvútrixvo ctoc? 

An t)ót^|\ cof Án ? 

An pex\|\ U^T)5? 

An c^px\t t)ó ? 

An bó odp-Al? J 

An x\m^|\Aó x\n "OótfmAó ? 

An i x\n Aoíne acA ^Ainn ? 
An é aw SAtA\\n azá 
A^Amr\ ? 

Turf is not coal. 

Grass is not foliage. 

A cabbage is not a tree. 

A tree is not a cabbage. 

Meat is not cabbage. 

Cabbage is not meat. 

Meal is not flour. 

Flour is not meal. 

A horse is not a cow. 
< A cow is not a horse. 

A foal is not a calf. 

A horse is not a foal. 

A garden is not a corn- 

Barley is not wheat. 

Wheat is not oats. 

Fir is not oak. 

Hazel is not ash. 

I am not Tim. 

My name is not Tim. 

fls stone wood ? 

\ls a stone wood ? 

Is a path a road ? 

Is Tim a man ? 

Is a cow a horse ? 

Is a horse a cow ? 

Is to-morrow Sunday ? 
(Lit., Is the Sunday to- 
morrow ?) 

Is to-day Friday ? 

Is to-day Saturday ? 


An iiroiti An LuAti ? Is this Monday ? 

An é .An tiiAti auá itroiu Is this Monday ? 

.A^Ainn ? 

An é f eo an ltu\n ? Is this Monday ? 

An pie tup a ? Are yow a poet ? 

An 5ada|\ tmonAn ? Is a kid a goat ? 

An muc rruvojiA \ Is a dog a pig ? 

An truvopA trmc ? Is a pig a dog ? 

An leAU-pA An muc ? Is the pig yours ? 

An te,AC An 5^*0 a p -? Is the dog yours ? 

An te.AU An triAi'oifmi ? Is the little dog yours ? 

An zw a cAitt é ? Was it you that lost him ? 

An cti a puAip é ? Was it you that found 


An cu a C115 te-Ac é ? Was it you brought him ? 

An en Tr-pds ^npó é ? Was it you left him here ? 

An T)óic te^c gup teAU é ? Do you think he is yours ? 

An mbé\Af\pAif\ te.AC é ? Will you take him with 

you -? 

An t)pÁ5pAij\ ax) X)1A15 é ? Will you leave him be- 
hind ? 

An *ou.ADApp,Aip T)órh]M é ? Will you give him to me ? 

An coite^n rriAic é ? Is he a good pup ? 

An tniAn^c iuaic é ? Is he a good breed ? 

An *opoc trii An ac é ? Is he a bad breed ? 

An miAn^c pog^nuA é ? Is he a good breed ? 

An tiptnt poUiigeAct Ann ? Is he highly bred ? 

An CÁ005 é? Is he a low-bred cur ? 

An n-oíotpÁ é ? Would you sell him ? 

An sceAnócpÁ é ? Would you buy him ? 

An móp a bei'óeA'ó uaic How much would you be 
Aip ? asking for him ? 


An tnój\ a\\ á rraíotpá é ? 

An tnóf\ A\y a bfMigmn 

UxMC é? 
Antnóf\x\ ce^\n 00^*0 tiAicé? 

An mó|\ ^ cornóóxvú fé ? 
An 'mó t)tu\gAin é ? 

An 'rnó tá é ? 

An 'mó mí é ? 

An ; mó fiáice é? 

An 'mó f e^ccttiAin é ? 

An 'rnó piACAt Aige ? 
An 'mó fúit ^nn ? 
An 'mó ex\|\t)At aija ? 
An J mó cex\nn A\y< ? 
An 'mó cof pé ? 
An 'mó cof cojmis -pé ? 

An 'tnó cof -oeifit) pé ? 

An 'mó mng-A <aija ? 
An teac pém é ? 

An ^MTltAIT) -d gtHTHf é ? 

An ^rhLdi*ó ^ ce<Aningir é ? 
An ^rhlxMt) a ^ua^aa^ a^ 
T)vit ^mú é ? 

For how much would you 

sell him ? 
For how much would I get 

him from you ? 
How much would buy him 

from you ? 
How much would he cost ? 
How many years old is 

How many days old is 

How many months old is 

How many quarters (of a 

year) old is he ? 
How many weeks old is 

How many teeth has he ? 
How many eyes has he ? 
How many tails has he ? 
How many heads has he ? 
How many legs has he ? 
How many fore legs has 

How many hind legs has 

How many claws has he ? 
Is he your own ? 
Is it how you stole him ? 
Is it how you bought him ? 
Is it how you found him 

losing ? 


An -AtfitAi'D T)o bf\on,<vó 
of\c é ? 

If AtíltA1*Ó *00 f\U5<.VÓ cXgtlf 

T)0 co^vVo AgAm j?em é. 

At! T)vM|\1|Mt) <\C<\01 ? 
1f *OÁ1f\1j\1U. 

11c\c b|\evAg An L\ é ! 
X\Ác ptmc ah U\ é ! 
Y\Ác pti Af ^n Lá é ! 
tl^c ueit An lá é ! 
tlÁc moc ACÁ ré ! 

tk\c Áttiinn é ! 
ÍIac bjveÁg é ! 
Tl,ác t)}\eAg aza f é ! 
ÍI4Ó bo^ x\cá f é ! 

tl v\c bos auá f é a^az ! 
ITac bog árÁ *oo ó|\oiceAn 

oj\c ! 
tlÁc bo^ x\ tx\5án CAinc 

Ó115.AC ! 
11 ÁC C|U1A1*Ú ,\cá An port a 

xM|\ ! 
tlÁC £AT)A AUAOÍ Idf ! 

TIac é Uat)5 é ? 
t\Áo itiac thiiu é ? 
X\Ác é T)0 riiAc é ? 
tlÁó é *oo tfu\c réin é ? 

Is it how some one made 

you a present of him ? 
It is how he was born and 

reared in my own pos- 
Are you in earnest ? (Lit., 

Is it in earnest you are ?) 
Yes, I am. (Lit., Yes, it is 

in earnest [I am]). 
Isn't it a fine day ! 
Isn't it a wet day ! 
Isn't it a cold day ! 
Isn't it a hot day ! 
How very early it is ! (Lit.. 

Isn't it early it is !) 
Isn't it grand ! 
Isn't it beautiful ! 
Isn't it beautiful ! 
How soft it is ! (Lit,, Isn't 

it soft it is !) 
How soft you have it ! 
How soft your skin is upon 

you ! 
How easy talk comes to 

you ! 
How hard the hair is upon 

him ! 
How long you are at it ! 
Is it not Thade ? 
Is he not a son of yours ? 
Is he not your son ? 
Is he not your own son ? 


tí^c é T)0 rh^c-jM é ? 
Y\Ác é X)0 rhAC-fM pém é ? 

tl^c tn^c *otncf e péiii é ? 

V\Ác be^ti í ? 
tl-ác í 130 oe^n í ? 
T\Á6 í fin í ? 
Y\Ác í fin péin í ? 
T1.ác í fin í pém ? 
Y\Ác te^c í ? 
HxSc te^c-f^ í ? 
TUc í c'inge^n í ? 
Hxac inge^n x)iiic í ? 

tl^c inge^n T>tnc-r e í ? 

TUc í c'mge^ri-tM í ? 
H^c ingex\n xmic j?ém í ? 

Tl-ác í c'mge^ri -péin í ? 

tláó í fmjoo f5ix\n ? 
TUc í *oo f5i^n í ? 
rUc í x)0 rsMíi pém í ? 
TUc te^c í ? 
TUc fs^n tex\c í ? 
TL\c r-51411 texxcf a í ? 
ttáó í X)o ctn-o j?éin í ? 

VíÁc te*\c pém í ? 

Is he not yoM/r són ? 

Is he not actually your own 

Is he not actually a son to 
yourself ? 

Is she not a woman ? 

Is she not your wife ? 

Is not that she ? 

Is not that she exactly ? 

Is not that herself ? 

Is she not yours ? 

Is she not yours ? 

Is she not your daughter ? 

Is she not a daughter of 
yours ? 

Is she not a daughter of 
yours ? 

Is she not your daughter ? 

Is she not a daughter of 
your own ? 

Is she not your own 
daughter ? 

Is not that your knife ? 

Is it not your knife ? 

Is it not your own knife ? 

Does it not belong to you ? 

Is it not a knife of yours ? 

Is it not a knife of yours ? 

Is it not your own pro- 
perty I 

Does it not belong to your- 
self ? 


11 Ác en An peAji ! What a man you are ! 

tÍÁc é An peAf é ! a nmi- What a man lie is ! as Ned 
boo-pu BAtnon teif An said to the ram. 


Past Time. 

t)o nig t)j'o on. Brian was a king. 

tXd nig nopot é, He was a noble king. 

th\ rfiAC "Do 1l1tij\cooú, Morgan was a son of his. 

t)A rhóf An nig é. He was a great king. 

t)A córhocuoc An nig é. He was a powerful king. 

t)o nig córiiAccAc e. He was a powerful king. 

Rig GómAóCAc 'ooo eAt> é. He was a powerful king. 

t)o riiAit An peAf é. He was a good man. 

peAn moiú *oob eo*ó e. He was a good man. 

Doo Aoittmn An LÁ é. It was a spl id day. 

La Aoibinn *oob gats é. It was -a. splendid day, 

t)Á cinm An Lá e. It was a dry day. 

La aha cinm *oob eA"ó é. It was a very dry day. 

th\ tó. bjtoúAlAó é. It was a warm day. 

Óa Ld AnA &nocAiAc é. It was a very warm day. 

Lá 0110 bnocAlAc *c>ob It teas a very warm day. 

eo, 'ó é. 

t)o riión An bnoúAl é. It was great heat. 

"Do LÁt-oin An peAn é. He was a strong man. 

)-*eoii AnA tóvom'oob eo.-o é. He was a very strong man. 

Xy é peAn bo óneipe on o He was the strongest man 

a; iieooó é. of his race. 

t) é bo, tiito booms An It was he that least felt the 

fUACC. cold. 

t)' é bv\ fiA béAftpAió It was he that could carry 
tioloe teir. a load furthest. 


t)* Al\\ bA §10 JU A \YlA\\\ 

mite f Uge vo cufv *oe. 

X)a *óe^f é ! 
t><\ n\A\t é ! 
X)a X)\\eÁ-5 é ! 
X)a mó\\ é i 
X)oX) otc é ! 
X)<s tpéAri é ! 
t).'A ófúrimi é ! 
T)ob f ípjA é ! 
T)ob i aíi ftfiitine í. 
X)\ X)\\iAn 'wa i\íg-. 

í)í fé córiMócdó. 
t)í fé 1 tV $eA\\ mAít. 
X)\ yé 1 iV £ga\\ fóg&nc-A. 
t)í An IÁ 50 ti-xxoírjinn. 

t)í AX\ IÁ 50 tl-xMlx* 


t)í x\n txS uyim. 

t)í x\n tÁ ara l3|A0Cv\U\c. 

t)í au \:eA\\ lÁw\\\. 

t)í fé AVlA tdmip. 

t)í ré 1^5. 

t)í fé -An^ Lag. 

t3í fé 50 Ia^. 

t)í fé 50 ti-AtiA L45. 

Oí fé 50 ti-AtM t^5 ^|\ 

It was on him that it 
was a very short delay 
to traverse a mile of 

It was a nice thing 1 

It was a good thing ! 

It was a fine thing ! 

It was a big thing ! 

It was a bad thing ! 

It was a brave thÍDg ! 

It was an exact thing ! 

It was a true thing ! 

It was the truth. 

Brian was king. 

He was a noble king. 

He was powerful. 

He was a good man. 

He was a useful man. 

The day was splendid. 

The day was most splendid 

The day was dry. 

The day was very hot. 

The man was strong. 

He was very strong. 

He was weak. 

He was very weak. 

He was weakly. 

He was in a very weak 

He was in a very weak 

state entirely. 


t>í pé 50 *oev\|\ He was nice. He was very 

nicely off. 
Dí fé 50 Ii-aiia t)ev\f. He was very nice. He was 

very nicely off. 
th'ot) f é Ag ót, He used to drink, 

toioi) fé ^j\ meifje, He used to be drunk. 

"Diot) fé 45 b|uugev\n. He used to be lighting. 

t)io*ó fé v\$ o,C]UMi. He used to be quarrellii 

l)iot) uo.|\u aijv He used to be thirsty. 

t)ío*ó cot)tv\ -Ai]\. He used to be sleepy. 

"Dico CAiifiCAfi Aijt. He used to be vexed. 

Oíox) ocjuf Aip. He used to be hungry. 

t)íot) U|\tr,*o vM]\. He used to be in a hurry 

tKoTp QOtAU Aijt. He used to be stingy. 

L)ío*ó é^T) Alp. He used to be jealous. 

t)ío*ó "OiuitieAf aiji. He used to be in haste. 

t>ío*ó teifve vM|\. He used to be lazy. 

t)ío-ó iHiite A1|\. He used to be mad. 

tÍHot) f é f cólc.v He used to be scalded. 

tHofj fé Af buite. He used to be mad. 

"Óío-q fé ,\}\ Teo.fs-tMnle. He used to be stark mad. 
tÍMo-ó fé o-f 0. mev\1i)v\if. He used to be out of his 

If s.]\ meifje ,\ tMot) f é. It is drunk he used to be. 
Ir Ag ót a bíoT) pé. It is drinking he used to 

If 'fiA ccotA o- B1 pé. It is asleep he was. 

If 'tu\ t)ú acá fé. It is awake he is. 
1f ! tiv\ tnnfe^cu v\ Dí fé. It is awake he was. 
1f -'ru\ co*oU\ a l'o-ó fé It is asleep he used to 

nnAif t)ít)inn-fe Am óái- be when I used to be 

peAcc. awake. 


tpé An co*otúif peÁjiteif. It is (the) sleep he likes 

t)' é avi codIa vob peÁft What he liked best was the 

leif. sleep. 

Ipé av\ co-old T)ob fe.&\\ Sleep is the thing he Zi/b<?cZ 

teif. best. 

In the last eight phrases "ip " is £Ae statement of a 


and future. In such sentences it is usually omitted, 

e.g. :_ 

&\\ metfsé auá f é. [It is] drunk he is. 

As ól a t)íox) f é. [It is] drinking he used to 

'Ua óox)td a ueró f é. [It is] asleep he will be. 

Sometimes it is introduced into the middle of the 
sentence in the form of " ife^*o, ,J e.g. : — 
><\|\ tneifge if e<vó azá f é. Drunk is what he is. 
A5 óL if e^x) a tMon re. Drinking is what he does 

be at. 
J tl a cot)Ia if eaó a t)eix) f é. Asleep is what he will be. 
A5 flutist ifexvó AZÁ re. [It is] walking he is. 
A5 pmt AZÁ ré. [It is] running he is. 

1f A5^tn}M az A r é. 

As^mp a irecvú acá f é. j-It is I that have it. 
As^tnf a aza fé. 
1f pe^fA é rin. 

pe^jA ipexvó é fiti. [That is a man. 

pe^jA éfin. 
1ré ^n tá AmÁ\i<\c avi T)om- > | To-morrow is Sunday. 

riAc. V (Lit., It is to-morrow 

AmÁjUAc An T)orhtn\c. j Sunday is.) 


If "ouine é. "j 

T)tiine if e^t) é. ,-It is a human being. 

*0«ine acá Ann. J 

13a *ú«ine é. ^| 

T)«me *oob e.v\t> é. j-It was a human being. 

*0«me a bi Ann. j 

If iiiT)é Á biop 1 5Coj\CvM5.]It is yesterday I was in 

1n*oé a fciof 1 5Coj\CvM5. j Cork. 

If uixmi auaiw ^5 ceAóc" 

AbvMte. I It is to-day I am coming 

1 11*01« ACÁiíri ^5 ue.v\cc j home. 

AbAite. J 

If AfnÁfAC A CAf f AT). 1 _ . , _ . _- 

. . . . it is on to-morrow 1 shall 

AfYlAflAC A CAffAT) 

dmÁfiAc ifeA"ó a c 


3AffAT). J 

Sometimes the very nature of the statement will 
not allow "if* fo 5e its^d wi j?as£ time. 

If U\ioij\ ACÁ "OiAjMiuuT). Dermod is strong. 

1f L\i*oij\ A bi T)u\j\in«iT) Dermod was strong yes- 

111*00. terday. 

If tÁiT)if AtteróféAtfiÁjiAG. He will be strong to- 

But ice cannot say : — -. 

If U\i*oij\ An feAf T)iA]\muiT) nuAifi bi fé 05. fye 
must say, bA LáiT)ifi An feAf T)iA|\mui*o ntiAtf a bí fé 

05, Dermod mas a strong man when he was young. 
It does not follow that he is a strong man now. But 
we can say, If Láitmji a bi tHdfmiuiT) ntiAif a bí fé op 

because it is #rae now //^/f fee was strong then. 


Conditional Sentences, 

1TU\ Y tn.Mú é if miti*o é. If it is good it is full time 

for it. 
tT)Á Y euvilín ó'n *octn\t mé Even if I am a country 

ní íoppámti seift. girl I would not eat 

1TIÁ Y féiT)i]i é cioc'PáM'ó Dermod will come if it is 

T)u\|\nuiix). possible. 

X)Á mb' f?éi*oif\ é *oo tioc- He would have come if it 

pvó fé. had been possible. 

ttU z& ovAXXA^At éifcpif. If you have sense you will 

keep silent. 
X)Á mbei*óevVú ci Alt A5AC If you had sense you would 

■o'éifupÁ. keep silent. 

VftÁ bion cu\tt Ai$e eifc- If he will have sense he 

-pi*ó f é. will keep silent, or if he 

has sense he will keep 
tX\ malt liom Deoc *o' I should like to get a 

f?AgAit. drink. 

t)A f eói^ an -pe.\|\ Uat>5 Thade would be a won- 

-oá mbei*úexvú <\ip5e*vo derful man if he had 

Aige. money. 

X)Á trib-A rh.Ait teif ét)o He would have money if 

bei*úe,cVó xm^oat) Áige. he liked. 
T)a mbA n a f^AoítfvVt) f é If he had not let it go he 

Ux\i*ó ébei-úevVóré xMge would have it in abun- 

50 cmg. dance. 

tTU\ b' fx\*o^ é xmi IÁ bA If the day was long the 

£aijut) \ An oroce. night was short, 


X)Á tntV pC\-OA é An Iá If the day had been long 
fteroeA'ó ^n oróce 541^1*0. the night would have 

been short. 

The difference between t>á tntM and tnÁ X>a is this — 
mÁ bA takes the condition for granted as realised, 
X)á mbvA takes the opposite for granted. 

ÍY\Á 'f T)time tn\]Mt é. If he is a gentleman 

(which I should think he 
is), &c. 
QÁ mtxa -ótn he tu\]v\t é. If he were a gentleman 

(which he cannot be), &c. 
TT1-Á t><\ t)tiine UAf\At é. If he was a gentleman 

(as you say he was), &c. 
tt)Á uá /oeoó djAm ótpvo If I have a drink I shall 

é. drink it. 

TXÁmbei'óeA'ó'oeoóASAm If I had a drink I would 

X)' ótp\irm é. drink it. 

1TL\ uá f é x\5v\tn ge^Ai^e. If I have it you will get it. 
X>S mt>eix)evVó fé a^axí\ If I had it you would get it. 

ge^toúÁ é. 
ÍÍ\Á 'r *.\$\\mf a azá fé If / have it you will get it. 

ge.AtMij; é. 
X)Á tnty ^5<mti|m fjeróed'ó If / had it you would get 

f é ^e<sX)t& é. it. 

tTL\ 'f ^5 imteacc -dca If it is going he is ; I shall 

ré -oe^-p^vo teif pAn- bid him stay. 

rii ai tic. 
T)Á tub' x\5 imteAcc a If he was going I would 

rjeróevAt) ré *oeAj\).\\inn bid him stay. 

teif j.v\ntfu\inc. 


Yt)Á Y OCjtdf ACÁ A^ JZAX)- 

a\\^ax) ftro te n-icexvú 
X)Á rnb' oc|Mf a tteVúeA'ú 

n-ite<vó *úó. 
ÍTl^ Y ^om^A a tu-gAMf é 

c-á r é <d5^m. 
TM tnbA "óótrif^ CAb^f\{M 

é bemexvú fé x^tn. 
ÍTU Y } ^a COT)U\ ACÁ r é 

*Oi tnbV n^ co*oU\ beit)- 
e^*ó f é ní beráexvé Uao- 

tTU tzá a ttnttexvú A^A\n 

^eAfiA^ é. 
X)Á mbei-óeAt) <a ttntteAX) 

^s^tn £eA¥)tÁ é. 
t)^ rhxMú tiotn vá t>£éA*o- 

t)^ rhxMt tiotn 50 Iáúa^á. 
X)a rhAit tiom 50 11-éiftjM. 

t)^ rh^it tiotn 50 T>ciocp5, 
Agiif LAb^ific tiotn. 

X)a tfi^it tiom 50 bjMtipÁ 
toi|\ jm b^ile "utnu péin. 

T)Á tnb' <áit te^c éif zeAóz 
bei*óinn atia btn-óe^c 


If it is hungry he is, I shall 

give him something to 

If he was hungry I would 

give him something to 

If it is to me you gave it, 

I have it. 
If you had given it to me 

I should have it. 
If it is asleep he is, he is 

all right. 
If he were asleep he would 

be all right ; there would 

be no danger of him. 
If I have any more you'll 

get it. 
If I had any more you 

should get it. 
I should like if I could get 

a view of it. 

I should like you to speak. 
I should like you to keep 

I should like you to come 

and speak to me. 
I should like you to remain 

east at home for yourself. 
If you would hold your 

tongue I would be very 

much obliged to you, 

T)ob peS\\ *oe ru é *0Á nib a 
ti Á beróeA'ó a lest otp- 


T)Á nib a 11 Á bei-oeAt) GAfit 

,M|\ m 6tpdA pé. 
Ill nn a mbei-oeA.-ó 50 bpmt 

CAfic Aif ni 0I4WÓ pé. 
IH1111A mberoeAu cajic *oo 

belt Ai|\ 111 ótpvó re. 
nitniA mbei-oeAX) CAftt aij\ 

111 0I4WÓ ré. 

nit111A flAlb CAj\C Alf tlíOfl 

ót pé. 
mmiA mbei'oeA'ó 50 juvib 
CAfTC A1f 111 ótrA-ó pé. 

tVltmA bptnl ua|\u Aif 111 

ótr Aró ré. 


You would be the better 

of it if you bad not one 

half the talk. 
If he were not thirsty he 

would not drink. 
But that he is thirsty he 

would not drink. 
But for his being thirsty 

he would not drink. 
If he were not thirsty he 

would not drink. 
If he was not thirsty he 

did not drink. 
But that he was thirsty 

he would not drink. 
If he is not thirsty he will 

not drink. 

Tlie learner mast note carefully the difference 
bet ween those seven forms of a negative condition, 

f specially between munA runt) and mtniA mberóeA'ó 50 
rwviD, as 'well as between munA brtnl and munA 
moei'óeA'ó 50 brtnt. tVltm a bttnl meet ns If there is not. 
tV!tiiiA mbei-oeAX) 50 brtnt means Bm for the fact that 
there is. IV) nn a ruub means If there was not. 
tTltniA tnoeróeAT) 30 ju\ib means But for the fact that 
th^re was. 

triÁ 'r ntro é 50 b|rAnpAi]A If it is a thing that you 
50 Lá CAp 30 cetne. will stay till morning 

come as far as the 

50 LÁ níO|\ rhífoe *óuiu 
ce-Aóc 50 -ocí x\n ceitie, 

X)Á mb4 fitm é 50 t>ciocjm 

rhó|\ T)tiic fgédtA T)0 

é 50 bpxnpró f é 50 14 

fgé^t-A T)0 Ct1f\ -Ab*\lte ? 


If it was a thing that you 
would stay till morning 
you might come to the 

If it was a thing that you 
would come on staying 
until morning you would 
want to send word home. 

Did you ask him to send 
word home if it was a 
thing that he would stay 
till morninof ? 

In this sentence, má tM jui*o é intimates the speakers 
approval, X)Á mb^ jutd é would intimate the speaker's 
indifference, or disapproved, of the party's remaining. 

X)A mtM juro é 50 b|Mg- 
xunn pice ptinc a\\ An 
a\\ ay\ inborn if be^5 t\Á 
50 tribei'De^vo aú tedc- 
cíof 45AIT1. 

X)Á m\)A fut) é 50 mbei-ó- 
e^T) -Ati IÁ AmÁ\\A6 a\\ 
fognarh T)' fe^páí-óe "óo t)édru\rh *oe 
'11 petift f^m cíof. 

TDúbdju; teif triv\ bA f\UT> 
é 50 mberoedt) An tÁ 
<df\ pognAtri, CfUIAC *oo 
■óedruuri *oe 'n téun. 

If it was a thing that I 
would get twenty pounds 
for the horse and ten 
pounds for the cow, I 
would have nearly the 
half-year's- rent. 

If it was a thing that to- 
morrow would be any 
way fair, a rick could be 
made of that hay below. 

I told him, if the day was 
any way fair, to make a 
rick of the hay. 


Here, xr\Á t>& fui*o é intimates that the clay did turn 
out fine. X)Á mt)A \\wo é would intimate that it did 


tThiru\juiT) é 50 *0UAittipx) 
An A.\ic Loac -pévVO}:v\if\ 
itnce.úóc A]\ 

é r\& uxMunj-Mt) -An 41c 
teif nÁ fÍAit) tk\c aij\ 
nnteAcc Af. 
WC\Á Y fti*o é 50 tntoeiT) 
An bttAgAin feo corn 
mAttteif Ati mbUAgAm 
AtiAi|«5 bei*o An fAOgÁt 


TXátntoA juit) é 50 mbei*ó- 
e.vó An t)UA$<\in feo 
corn mAit Agttf bí An 
btMgvMn AriAittig beit)- 
míf x\|\ .\rv *ouoil. 

If it is not a thing that 
you will like the place 
you can leave it. 

I told him that if he hap- 
pened not to like the 
place he was at liberty 
to leave it. 

If it turns out that this 
year will be as good as 
last year was, the times 
will be at the height of 

If this year had turned out 
as good as last year we 
would be as well off as 
we could wish. 

An z-e if pig. 

" An f úmAi|\e if aúaij\ 

<\n z-é if pe^fv dge^nro. 

Cm h-e if ce^nn Anf o ? 
Cia ti-e if 51 oil a A^^Mb ? 
Cia h-é if "pe.vrv cirm piAin 

OfvAlt) ? 

"if" relative. 

The man who is kin^. 

" That mope who is father 

to you.' 5 
The person who is man- 

of-the-house here. 
Who is boss here ? 
Who is your guide ? 
Who is your leader? 


An c-é if giott^ 4541 tin 
ifé if fe^ cínn fiAin 
o|\ai nn. 

An c-é if pvoA cof if é if 

f ATM CfWftÓS. 

The person who is our 

guide it is he who is our 

The man who is long of 

leg it is he who is long 

of step. 

In this Irish construction cof and cjuir tog express 
manner, exactly as " of leg" and " of step " do in the 
English. Ufur-tós is the step which is taken when a 
person springs off one leg and alights on the other. 

An c-é if mó|\ OAinc ni 
h-é if rr\A\t cult 50 


1f tmrnc n^c é ^n c-é if 

lU\fdl CÁ1I 1f UAfAl 


Often the person wIig is 
great of speech is not 
the person who is good 
in sense. 

It often happens that it 
is not the person who 
enjoys the noble name 
that has the noble dis- 

The if which* grammarians set down as the sign of, 
the superlative, is in reality nothing but this relative 
if. An fe^ if tnófi c&\wc is exactly the same con- 
struction as aw fe^ if mó ca\wc. 

Aw fe^]A if mop Mine, 

An ipeA\\ if mo cahic 

The person who has much 

The person who has more 

talk (than anyone else), 

i.e., the man who has 

most talk. 


An pedfi if pe^jv The man who is better 

(than any one else). i.<:.. 

the man who is best. 
An peAf if óije. The man who is younger 

(than any one else). I.e., 

the man who is youngest. 
An peAf if pne. The man who is older 

(than any one else) 

An pe^f txA qtetfe. The m a n who w; a s 

stronger (than any one 

else), ''/:.. the man who 

was strongest. 
An pe^f "oob 015c. The man who was younger 

(than any one else)., /,<:.. 

the man who was the 

An peAf t)ou peájv The man who was better 

(than any one else), i.e., 

the man who was best. 
An peAf tn\ mo CAitrc. The person who had more 

talk (than any one else). 

i.t,. the man who had 

most talk. 
An peAf tx\ rhóf CvMiiu. The man who was of much 

talk, i.e., the man who 

had a lot of talk. 
\D.\ mime no,n tv é An peAf It frequently happened 
-oob UAf-At Cv\il An peAf that it was not f 
*oob u-AfAt métrm. son who had the high 

name that had the noble 



Call and rnémn are substantives of manner. 

An c-é -oob faoA cor b } The person who had the 
é *oob pAVA tfttftos. long leg was the person 

who had the long step. 

An c-é bA pollA ^5^1 nn The person who was our 
iffe V fe&\\ cttin fuw guide is the person who 
ojiAwn. was our leader. 

In old Irish this relative if was often written áf, 
as if compounded of a and tfj, a> OobejAt^ 
•oinc-pn fin " 6t C-AtAi " ocuf ni cu^^vo f\empi nÁ 
lira *oi Ait) co bpinn*oe bíiác^ ní .Af tefciu tmn otcáf 
fin." "That shall be granted to thee," said Cathal, 
" and there has not been given before it, nor after it 
until the brink of judgment, a thing which is more 
disagreeable to us than that." (See Ai^Un^e tTletc 
Con^lmne, page 59.) 

The relative form of zá is azá. AcÁ should never 
be used as an absolute form. 

tÁ fé ; iu\ co*oLú. 
'Y\a cox>Ia azá f é. 

) Wa C 0*01 A AZÁ ff. 

P-Á5 map au<\ f é é, 
(( An c-é ^cá fii-Af 
T)eoc aija." 

" An c-é azá fíof 

cex\|\ cop dif ." 
CAnn 50 11MIC. 



He is asleep. 

It is asleep he is. 

It is asleep she is. 

Leave him as he is. 

" The man who is pros- 
perous people drink his 

"The man who is down 
people trample on him." 

I am very well. 


£a$ nu\fi ACÁrni mé. 
go fó tfiAit Acáim. 
If 59 ti-'Att-A rhAic ACÁim. 
50 T)uti mait ireAt) 

UÁim 50 h-AnA mAit. 
Oim 50 T)iAn iridic. 
"T>Af pi^T) cÁtmfé aji 

meif^e ! ;; 
ÍM Se^J^n 11 a tTlAnsÁm 


1fé SeÁgAn ua tTlAnsÁm 

^ bi Ann. 
t)i beAn SeAgAin 111 

IHAn^Am Ann. 
t)eAn SeAgAin ui tTL\n- 

gAin -a t>i Ann. 
t)i ah rgéAl map rm. 

Sm triAfi a bi An r$éAl. 

1TlAf\ a bi ré. 
THa|\ auá* ré. 
'TDa^ a bei*ó ré. 
TTlAfi a bío*ó fé. 
TTlAf\ a bei*óeA*ó fé. 
t)í ré mAn acá f é. 
Uá ré mAf\ a beit) pé. 
L)ei*o ré mA|\ a biot) ré. 

lí)ío*ó f é triAj\ a bíon ré. 

Leave me as I am. 
It is right well I am. 
It is mighty well I am. 
Exceedingly well is what 

I am. 
I am mighty well. 
I am exceedingly well. 
" Really, / am drunk." 

John Mangan was there. 

It is John Mangan that was 

John Siangan's wife was 

It was John Mangan's wife 

that was there. 
The matter stood in that 

That is how the matter 

As it was. 
As it is. 
As it will be. 
As it used to be. 
As it would be. 
It was as it is. 
It is as it will be. 
It will be as it used to 

It used to be as it does 


It does be as it used to 

It is coming Donald is. 

Donald is coming. 

tHoti f é m^fi a oío*ó f é. 

1f a§ cedcc azá T)orh- 

TZ& T>6mriA\X as zeAóz. 

An z-é aza 'via 510U4 The person whom we have 
Aj^AMrm ifé ac A 1 iV as guide is the person 
peAp círm |AixMti as~ whom we have as leader 

In dependent sentences if becomes gup or guftdbo 

Deifim 5tif bfie^g An 

IÁ é. 
T)eifiitn 5ii|\ IÁ b|\e-dg é. 
T)ei|Aim gtifvdto áUnrm xmi 

IÁ é. 

Ce^pxMtn 5«|\ Atifo az<\ 

1f T)óió tiotn 51^ C|\eire 
•o , peA\\ Uat>5 'ná T)órh- 

C|\ei*oitn 5U{\ peajAfcAinri 

a "oednjMit) f é. 
Hi T>eijiirn } nÁ £u\\ a§ 

fioc auá fé. 
tlí T)ei|Aim 'n^ 50 o£tiil 

tlí -oeifum 'nÁ gup 454c 
acá An ceA\vc. 

I say that it is a fine day. 

I say that it is a fine day. 
I say that it is a glorious 

I consider that he is a 

strong man. 
I conclude that it is here 

it is 
I think that Thade is 

a. stronger man than 

I believe it is rain that 

will come. 
I don't say but that it is 

freezing it is. 
I don't say but you are 

I don't say but that it is 

you that's right. 


Oút)Af\c 5tif\ btAeAg ati tÁ I said that it was a fine 

é. day. 

■QtiUAtu: 5«f U\ btAeÁg é. I said that it was a fine 


DtibAifc f é sun *ó|\oc IÁ He said that it was a bad 

é. day. 

T)tibvM|Au fé 5ti|A tV ÁUnnn He said that it was a 

An U\ é. glorious day. 

itleAfAf 511 1\ ty fOAp IÁ1- I thought that he was a 

T>if\ é. strong man. 

CeApAf 5tif\ Anro a bí pé. I thought that it was here 

he was. 

1TIÁ -oeitmn 511 p b|\eÁ;g If I say that it is a fine day 

An Lá é 'oéAtvpA'o An I shall say the truth. 


tTlÁ *oei|\itn gujA bj\eÁg If I say that it is a fine day 

An IÁ é *oeit\im An I say the truth. 


X)S n-Abj\Ainn 511 j\ bj\eÁg If I were to say that it is 

An tÁ é T>éAtArAinn An a fine day I would say 

pjunne. the truth. 

T)Á n-Abt\Ainn 5tij\ bfieÁg If I were to say that it 

An IÁ é T)éAft:cMnn An was a fine day I would 

fifunne. say the truth. 

In dependent sentences ni becomes nÁ ; nÁó ; o/ad níoti 
becomes nÁf or nÁt\ b'. 

til h-otc An 1Á é. It is not a bad day. 

T)ei|Aim nÁc otc Ati IS é. I say that it is not a bad 

Hi of tV otc An tÁ é. It was not a bad day. 


'Otitic n^f\ t>' otc An IÁ 

Í1i0|\ c^ittex\f é. 
T)útMfc nÁp ó4itte-áf é. 

tlí ti-xvótrnvo ctoó. 
*Oei|\itn nÁó ^vóttt.A*o ctoó. 

Tlí 5^X)^f\ comín. 
X)ei|\itn nÁó 5^*ó^|\ comín. 

T)útMf\c; n^|\ gxYóx\f\ c 01 nín. 

THa t>ei|\ tnnne $;iif\ 5^*0- 
^\f\ cómín ní *oei|\ f é ^n 

T)^ n-Ábp&'ó mnne $iif\ 
g^*ó.úfi x\n comín ní 
-oé^pd-ó fé ^n f?íf\inne. 

ÍY\Á aX)\\avi T)tnne gu^ 
5xvóx*f comín ní T>e^|A- 
pvi*ó fé &r\ pípinne. 

"Oúb^ficf^, tm n-^0|r<ró 
T>tnne 5ti|\ 5^T)^|\ coin- 
in, r\Á t)é^|ipA*ó fé x\n 

X)úX)AM[\z T)ótfm^tt 50 
n-onb^fcf^ T>Á n--db- 
t^xvó T)iiine gufi óómm 

I said that it was not a bad 

I did not lose it. 
I said that I did not lose 

Stone is not wood. 
I say that stone is not 

I said that stone was not 

A rabbit is not a dog. 
I say that a rabbit is not a 

I said that a rabbit was 

not a dog. 
If a person says that a 

rabbit is a dog he does 

not say the truth. 
If a person were to say 

that the rabbit is a dog 

he would not say the 

If a person say that a 

rabbit is a dog he will 

not say the truth. 
I said, that if a person 

were to say that a rabbit 

was a dog, he would not 

say the truth. 
Donald said that / said 

that if a person were to 

say that a dog was a 


An pjunne. 
5«f A' triAiú ^AU ! 
ílÁp a j tnAit ^$au ! 
5u]A a j trrite m^iú a^ac ! 
H^fi a' rníte iridic -A5-AC ! 

tní*o bti^g^n ó ; n*oiti 
Agtif muriA |?e^|\ náj\ 
a! meAf a ! 

•óó é ! 
Uú ré a\\ fUg riv\ p|\inne, 

5ti|A ^' rnAit ^n rh^if e 

-óó é ! 
Cá ^éÁlA incite ^s^rri 

DU1U. gup a' flán 

l^é^tAÍ-óe ! 
511 f\ a' peÁj\ AmÁftAG uu ! 

<Cá ÁtAf ojuii. 

Díon Aú^r ojim. 

t)í >dt-Af oj\rn. 

t)ío-ó Át&f Of\m. 

t)eit> átap Ofun. 

t)ei-óeA"ó óca^ oj\m. 

t> ? péix>i|\ 50 mDeme^t) 

rabbit he would not say 
the truth. 

Thank you ! 

No thanks to you ! 

Thank you ever so much ! 

In downright defiance of 
you ! 

That we may be seven 
times better off this 
day twelve months, and 
if we are not better 
that we may not be 
worse ! 

Thade has died, may he 
have fared well by it ! 

He is gone to the other 
world, may he be happy 
in the matter ! 

I have good tidings for you. 
Health to the bringer of 
the tidings ! 

May you be better to- 
morrow ! 

I am glad. 

I do be glad. 

I was glad. 

I used to be glad. 

I shall be glad. 

I would be glad. 

Perhaps I would be glad. 


t)ío*ó At Ay Ofitn. 

VftÁ rÁ ÁtAy oftn. 

T>Á tnoei*óexvo &tAy ojtm. 

X)a tfiáit tiotn ÁtAf T)o 

oeic ofitn. 
1f trixMú tiotn Átáy *oo 

beic oftn. 
tlí tridit tiotn 5<mi ácax 

-oo £>eit oftn. 
t1íoj\ rhAit tiotn 5^\n át^f 

"oo oeit o|\tn, 
Ot^f ovisac. 

U^ca|\ &t> texMirhxMtic. 
Ot^ ^5 peice^rh te^c. 

Otx*f\ 45 -p^i|\e 0|\c. 
Cic^ ^|\ t)o tí. 

Contif ^uút^f A5-416 ? 
Ocaji triAit 50 teóf. 
t)ix)ue^|\ ^5 f iút3-At ^|\ An 

5C0fWI fO, 

t)rócedf\ x\m te^tirhxMnc. 
t)vóce-Afi ^5 exilic -dnti. 

t)í*óce^|\ 45 5tAO*ó^ó 

t)ÍT)ceA|\ 45 tru\5<vó piítn. 

t)í*ÓCe-A|\ ^5 SUIT) Aj\bx\1f 


Let me be glad. 

If I am glad. 

If I were glad. 

I should like to be glad, 

I like to be glad. 

I do not like not to be 

I should not like not to be 

(They) are going to be at 

(They) are following you. 

(They) are waiting for 

(They) are watching you. 

(They) are bent on injur- 
ing you. 

How goes it with ye } 

It goes pretty well. 

(People) do be walking on 
this path. 

(They) do be following me. 

(Some one) does be talk- 
ing there. 

(Some one) does be calling 

(The people) do be making 
game of me. 

(Some one) does be steal- 
ing my corn. 


t)ít)ce^|\ v\5 ccMte^m ru\ (They) do be throwing the 

gctoc Horn. stones at me. 

t)í"óueA|t as m^b^vó nA (They) do be killing my 

5ce^f\c Oj\m. hens. 

X)o ti)ix)tev\f Ag $U\otk\c (Some one) was calling 

Of\rn. me. 

t)ít)úev\f ^5 fvM|\e oftm. (Some one) was watching 

Oí-óce^f A5 fuio^l Am There was (some one) 

■úiAró. walking after me. 

T)vóueAf }\óm.\m Aft An (The party) was before me 

tnoótv\j\. on the road. 

Orócí as gtACoAC ojun. (Some one) used to be 

calling me. 
Orúcí as paipe oftm. (Some one) used to be 

watching me. 
Orócí A5 cAiceAtti nA (Some one) used to be 

«sCtocbiom. throwing the stones at 

bei'ójMft cu5^u. (They) will be at you. 

t)eit)j\\t\ as rev\cr. (Some one) will be com- 

t3eix)).Mjv as 1 meeker a- (They) will be leaving on 

mÁfVAC. to-morrow. 

v\n mbeit)):v\|\ Ag 5^tx\il Shall (^ve) be at hay to- 

*o' peufi nroui I day. 

An rnbei*ój.wn otbAtfi Shall (we) be ready for 

ctn^e ? it ? 

tDei-újMjt. Yes, (we) shall. 

fllÁ u^u^|\ ollvMii nroui If (we) are ready to-day 

bei-ój:At\ olUni AmÁf- we shall be ready to- 

ac. morrow. 


T)Á tnbei-ópi ott^rh mmu 
"oo bei"ot:í oLLarh &- 

W\Á rjvóce^n oUatti a- 
noóc t>ei*ójMfi ott^rh 

An bpiiitce^f ottátfi ? 

Ati mbí'óce^f ottAtfi ? 

An mtorúceAn a\5 síúo'ó^c 

OfVC ? 

An mtoróce-df ^5 cxMte^rh 
ctoc te^u ? 

T)eifum 50 mtovúce^. 

T)úbAt\u 50 mtorúuí. 

An fiAbcdf -A5 gt^o'ó^c 

ope m*oiii ? 
ílí |\AbtAf . 
An t>£tnlce,df ^5 51^0*6^0 

opc ^noif 1 

An bpintue^|\ óii^Am ? 

t)vóce-Af\ ^5 jMif\e ai^. 

t)í xvo f uíge ! 
t)í me-Af ! 
t)í ^mtnc ! 
t)í Af\ fiúbAt! 

If (we) were ready to- 
day (we) would be ready 

If (we) are ready to-night 
(we) shall be ready to- 

Are (people) ready? 

Do (they) be ready? 

Does (any person) be 
calling you? 

Does (any person) be 
throwing stones at you? 


I say there does. 

I said there used to be. 

Was there (anyone) call- 
ing you to-day? 

There was not. 

Is there (anyone) calling 
you now? 

There, is not. 

Is (anyone) going to be 
at me? 

Yes there is (some 

Let (some one) be watch- 
ing him. 

Get up at once ! 

Be quick ! 

Go out at once ! 

Go away ! 

Be moving ! 


T\Á bi at) fe^f^rh AtifAiíi] 

Coitus Agtif oá bí-óceap 
45 peite^rh te^c ! 

TU bi AfTI tíO'ÓfUVÓ \ 

t\Á b! ^5 rriAgAió pflc 


Í1Á t>í ^5 teigmc ftA 

Be going ! 

Don't remain standing 
there ! 

Make haste lest (the 
people) may be waiting 
for you! 

Don't be bothering me ! 

Don't be making game of 
yourself, i.e., don't be 
making a fool of your- 

Don't be letting the wind 
in, i.e., don't be talking 

How are you ? 

Are vou exceedingly well ? 


Comif ; C401 ? 
An rjjrtni -n cu 50 *oixv 
rjulUA ? 

Some of our Irish scholars are under an extra- 
ordinary misapprehension regarding this word, 
mvVbtitUvV They imagine it is derived from the ivord 
mAt)At= devil. It is not. It simply means "re- 
doubled" When some of our learned men meet 
t>\aX)U\jc& they call it "like a fiend." But ivhen they 
meet coictn^toutu^ they have to call it what it really 
means, " five-fold." 

Tlie 'peoples instinct has enabled them to give the 
true meaning of the word in their own broken English. 
Here is how they manage it :— 
IZÁ vé ^5 fioc. "It is freezing." 

JZÁ fé Ag fioc 50 -DM- "It is freezing gee atly." 



Zá fé as -pe^txMtin, 4Í It is raining." 

Zá ré a% -pe^ftxMnn 50 " It is raining greatly/' 

C-á Uxvús ^5 f 141 ^ " Thade is running." 

O fé ^5 fuiit 50 t)1a- " He is running greatly." 


ZÁ fé ^5 'fiutldt 50 ma- " He is walking greatly." 


Cá fé Ag p&f 5° *° 1 ^~ " He is growing greatly." 

Cá fé ^5 otMif 50 T)1^- " He is working greatly." 

/dn ftptut An coifice 50 k4 Have ye the oats good?" 

m&\t A^A\X) ? 

Ac ! O f é 50 t>\aX)X\\j:a " Ach ! We have it 

4541 rm. greatly." 

JZÁm r\Ap]\ÁT:A : \T)e'§ox)\A- ''We have the potatoes 



The ivord waKuIza expresses intensity. It is like 
the word redoubled in English, both as to origin and 
meaning. There is a ivord which is derived from 
T)iaX)aI = devil. It is the word taaX)aiI. The people 
invariably translate it " divilish." 

1f T>iAt)A^ An oX)ai\\ i. ' It is devilish work." 

1f wa^aIza An otMip i. "It is awful work." 

1f waKaIza An -otime é "He is an awfully good 

te ^eAX)Ay. man." 

1f viaX)aIza An x>mne é " He is an awfully exact 

te cpwnneAy . man." 


If "OIAfcAÍCA All Cap At é 

cmn oibfie. 

If T)1At>AU;A All CAtAtfl é 

cum ófWAn. 
If mÁtJAlUA An pgeAt é 
X\Á fAttfÁ fOCAIfL 

tlÁé t)iadaMxa nÁ tei5fA"ó 
pt) T)om péin ! 

f\ÁÓ TMAtJAÍUA nÁ lei5fA"Ó 

fit) "oom péinl 

Leig *ootn -pern. 
Leig *oom pém. 
t\Á oac é péin. 
ÍIá oac é pétn ! 

TL\Ó T>U\t)AtUA An T)1Ú- 

neAf ^uá ofu ! 
tlác t>iAt)Ail An "oicneAf 

ACÁ Of c ! 

If "oiAbAtCA An puinneArh 
a t)íon Le ptétift. 

If TMAtXAtCA A ÓfUlt T)' 

AipseAt) A5 Ua*ós. 
If "oiAbAtUA a bpuit -oe 

c^inc Ai^e pé ^if^e^x) 
auá Ai^e. 
Hí beA5 "oe feó ^ojrtnt 
•oe óAinc Aige. 

" He is a great horse for 

" It is great land for 


" It is an extraordinary 
thing that you would 
not keep quiet." 

"Is it not extraordinary 
that ye would not let 
me alone ! " 

" Is it not extraordinary 
that ye would let my- 
self alone ! 

Let me alone. 

Let myself alone. 

Don't mind it. 

Don't mind itself. 

What an awful hurry you 
are in ! 

What a divilish hurry you 
are in ! 

A bullet moyes with very 
great force. 

Thade has an awful lot of 

He has an awful lot of 
talk whatever money 
he has. 

(Lit. It is not too little 
as a wonder what talk 
he has.) The amount 
of talk he has is amazing. 


Hi t>ex*5 x>' tongri^ é 

Hi be^5 tiom -oé. 
Hi be^5 tiom t)iot>. 
tlí be^5 T)otn pern 

méit) feo. 
Hi mó|\ T)om pern 

méit) feo. 
Hi tnófi tiom mnc é. 
Hi mó|A T)iiic é. 
Hi be^5 *otnu é. 
O fé |\ó rhó|A ^ac. 
O f é fó be^5 ^5^c. 
U-á fé fó LáiT>if\ t)tnu. 
U-Á f é \\ ó L45 *otiic. 
Cá f é fvó 1^5 -AJ5-AC. 
UÁ fé f ó ce^rm ^5^c. 

U^ fé fó bog ^sac, 
O f é |\ó £>05 tmic. 
CÁ f é cAtn xXgAU. 
Ua fé ott^rh A^^m. 

O fé focxMf ^5^m. 

(Zi£. It is not too little as 
a wonder.) It is a very 
great wonder. 

I have got enough of it. 

I have got enough of them. 
An This much is enough for 



This much is little enough 

for myself. 
I don't grudge it to you, 
You want it. 
It is enough for you. 
It is too big for you. 
It is too small for you. 
It is too strong for you. 
It is too weak for you. 
You have it too weak. 
You have made it too 

You have it too slack. 
It is too slack for you. 
You have bent it. 
I have prepared it ; I have 

made it ready. 
I have filled it ; I have it 

I have settled it ; I have 

it settled. 
I have brought it in; I 

have it brought in ; I 

have it in ; T have it 



<Cá f é ^rntnc &^Am. 

O fé ^f lÁp Ag-am. 

Zá fé tta-Af ^s^tn, 

O fé ftix^f ^s^m. 

O fé tíof 45^™. 

U^ fé fíof A£&m. 

ZÁ fé t-Att A5AW 

I have put it out ; I have 
it put out; I have it 
out ; I have it out- 

I have thrown it down; I 
have it thrown down ; I 
have it down ; I have 
it on the ground. 

I have put it up ; I have 
it put up ; I have it 
up ; I have it above. 

( This is the same as the 
previous sentence, but 
it expresses the upward 
/notion, not the rest 
above. This distinction 
cannot be expressed in 

I have taken it down be- 
low; I have it carried 
down ; I have it down : 
I have it below. 

( The same distinction as 
in the previous case.) 

I have taken it over; I 
have it carried over ; I 
have it over, yonder. 

(The same distinction.) 

I have brought it here ; I 
have it brought here ; I 
have it here. 


O fé An All ^5Am 

Zá An ceine x^ t^f^-ó 

ZÁ An c-^|\c^ó pot^rh 

CÁ1*0 VIA X)A 1 X>ZeAT\ZA 

'céite A^^m. 

1pxvo mo X)A pém md, 
1fM*o iat>. 
til h-lAT) f o i^vo ! 
An ^AX) f o i<<vo ? 

Hi Í1-MT). - 

O twine ^5 ce^óc. 
An é T)ix\f\mtn*o é ? 
ttí h-é. 

An é a rhAC é ? 
An bó acá ^nn ? 

1ft)Ó. ] 

1fedt). j 

An í ^n bó acá Ann ? 

t)ite^rhn-Aó ife^*ó í. 1r- 

eAt> yAn. 
O fé 'nA IÁ, rÁ rwi. 

I have brought it over; I 
have it brought over; I 
have it over, here. 

I have lighted the fire ; I 
have the fire lighted ; 
I have the fire lighting. 

I have emptied the vessel ; 
I have the vessel emp- 
tied, I have the vessel 

I have collected the cattle ; 
I have the cattle col- 
lected ; I have the cattle 

They are my own cows. 

They are the same. 

These are not they ! 

Are these they? 

They are not. 

There is a person coming. 

Is it Dermod? 

It is not. 

Is it his son? 

Is it a cow? 


Is it the cow F 


She is a thief, so she is 

It is day, so it is. 


\)Á IÁ if e^*ó azá f é. If - 

e^-ó f an. 
t)|\ifce ifexvú azá fé 

454c. 1feA*ó f-Ati. 
'V\a fini*oif1nít!) &cÁ fé 

a^ac. Ife^t) 
• T\Á X>fM\%Afi &c& f é ^5^c. f^n. 
Tlí h-ioncaoíb cufa. Tlí 

h-exvú f^n. 
Care^o-oe^f Agar. O 

O f é 50 ri-xMtroeif ^s^r. 

UÁ rwi. 
50 ti-^irraeif ifea*ó ^zS 

f é &S&Z. 1fe*vó f4ti. 
1f ctíf^ a fcpif é. 
Hi mé acu TZa*ó-&. 
Ve c^f újt if exvó t)fif f é é. 

ilí h-exvó acc le cti4ig. 

Sine An c^f úf . 

Si*oí ^n ctiAg. 

Suit) é Ua*ó5. 

Siné é ^nf^n é. 

Sit)é Atif o é. 

Siú , o é ax\x ú*o é. 

Si*oí ^nf o í. 

Smí xMif 411 í. 

Siúx> 1 4nfúT> í. 

~GÁ f é 4nr an. 

UA f é 411f o. 

Day is what it is, so it is. 

Broken is how yon have it. 

so it is. 
In smithereens is how you 

have it, so it is. 
In fragments you have it, 

so it is. 
You are not to be trusted. 

so you are not. 
You have it in a nice way, 

so you have. 
You have it in a mess, 

so you have. 
In a mess is how you have 

it, so it is. 
It was you that broke it. 
No, but Thade. 
It was with a hammer he 

broke it. 
jSTo, but with a hatchet. 
That is the hammer. 
This is the hatchet. 
Yonder is Thade. 
There it is there. 
Here it is here. 
There it is yonder. 
Here she is here. 
There she is there. 
There she is yonder. 
It is there. 
It is here. 


C-Á f é AnrtíT). 
Sine é. 
Sini í. 

Tlí h-e^vo. 

It is yonder. 

That is it. That is he. 

That is she. That is it. 

Yes. The matter is so. 

That matter is so. 

No. The matter is not so. 

That matter is not so. 

Hi ti-exvú f An. 

It tvill be seen from the above that é is the mascu- 
line, or neuter, pronoun ; that í is the feminine 
pronoun ; and that exvó is not a pronoun at all, but 
a particle ivhose function it is to represent any de- 
scription of indefinite predication after ir. Hence 
e^vó always represents the truth of some statement, 
which if asserts, and ivhich ni denies. 1r e*vó = " The 
matter is so." Hi ii-e^vo ==" The matter is not so." 


Oeit tÁiT)in. 

t)eic Iaj;. ~ 

1f triAit An \\ux) £>eir 


1f otc v\n juit) beit tAg. 

X)' feÁ\\ Uom £>eic lÁroin 

'nÁ £>eic tAg. 
Ca*o 'ím tAob nÁ ceAnuí- 

geAn cu bfAó^A *ótnc 

pém ? 
5^n An c-AingeAT) *oo 

t>eit AgAm. 
Ca*o ; n^ tAOft nÁ cu^An 

cú LeAC An mÁtA ? 

The fact of being. To be. 

To be strong. 

To be weak. 

It is a good thing to be 

It is a bad thing to be 

I'd rather be strong than 

Why don't you buy shoes 

for yourself? 

Because I have not got the 

Why do you not bring 

the bag? 


6 beic |\ó Cfiom. 
C,vo 'riA tsoV) t\Á pint Atin- 
LAti te t) 1 ótn*o bí*ó x\5^u? 
5v\n x\on |?v\gAit *oo tteic 

A^AITl Alf. 

CvVO ctn^e mnr fteir a^ 
iriASA'ó púm ? 

gAti v\on ci^lt *oo t>eit 


Cvo 'íia fcAoti nÁ li-icev\n 

c« ctntle*.vú? 
fWo "óóitin *oo fteiú icue 


An £)jr.\gvVo t)eic if 05 

UA1 U ? 

5eAt>Aif\ 3 v\cu 50m beit 'g-á 
ítvpinc ofim AmÁriAC. 

tlí peÁfi beic Ag c,\mr aiji 
.\cr if iongv\tirv\c v\n 
■otnne úii ! 

11 í peÁf belt A5 CAinc Aifi, 

"00 5ttA1*Ó ATI U\ in*01U 

v\j\ .\ 5pev\Cv\ pi Aril ! 
tli 't Aon iru\ic -ótnc beic 

Horn ! 
Tli h-iotiAn fteic Af t>uile 

A^uf Af lÁn-t)titLe. 

ItlÁ'f mokictev\u t)eitt)iu\n 
CvMú puAf A5«f ceit. 

Because it is too heavy. 
Why have you no kitchen 

with, your food? 
Because I have no rtieana 

of getting it. 
TThat are you making 

game of me for? 
Because you have no 

Why don't you eat more? 

Because I have eaten 

Will you give me a night' 8 
lodging ? 

I will, provided you 
will not be telling it to- 

There is no use in talking, 
you are an extraord- 
inary person ! 

There is no use in talking, 
this day flogs all I have 
ever seen ! 

There is no use in your 
being at me ! 

There is a difference be- 
tween being mad and 
being mad entirely. 

If you wish to live long 
take your food cold and 
run awav. 


Not to be bothering me. 

'tis what you'll do. 
He is a little unwell. 

Fairly well without much 
to boast of. 

5v\n t>e)t v\m oot)|\A"ó ífé 

t)e*.\nf 4if ! 
Vá fé g-Ati oeit Aft fóg- 


Ctn*DfAC,5-An oeit tm\oírh- 

t>' peAfA *otnt 5-ah a oeit It would be better for you 

a^-ac -acc pfu\c.A A5«f if you had but a potato 

5fuú n n e f a t ai u n at> ti 5 
féin 'ru\ T)A tnbenbexvo 
fóg ^5«f fiófCd ^5^c 1 
■OC15 v\n p\\ CALL. 

Diio-Afc teif 5-An t>eit 


T)iio,AfC teif 5 An *\on 

"oitneAf X)0 oeit aiji. 
T)úo^j\u leif 5 ah Aon 

e^Ux oeit -Ai|\. 
DiiDAfu teif 5ATI Aon 

CfUJ-Ag oeit Ai^e t)óit). 
T)úo.Af\c teif 5^n .aou 

eA^tA oeir Aige pómpA. 
T)úo.Afc teif gati aou 

5"e-Ann do tie it ^i^e 

Oft A. 

TXiDAfC teif 5 An *\on 
cÁtt -co beit Ai$e 
cue A. 

and a grain of salt in 
your own house than if 
you had the greatest 
luxuries in another 
man's house. 

I told him not to be long 

I told him :iot to be in 
any hurry. 

I told him not to be afraid. 

I told him not to have any 
compassion for them. 

I told him not to be afraid 
of them. 

I told him not to be in- 
fluenced by them (not 
to mind them). 

I told him not to have 
anything to do with 

(This cÁtt is a genuine Irish word. If does not 
in. can the English word "call." The Irish for that is 




f£ "fu^Af mo §}\eAnn mo "I have given my aftec- 
cÁXt 'f mo fé<\j\c T)o lion, tlie interest of my 

SéAmtlf. J, mind and my love, to 


' r TU\ bíot) v\on Cv\tt «xgxxc "Don't interfere with it." 

/£ is very ridiculous for people who have learned a 
little Irish to proceed at once to "correct" the 
forms of speech which the best intellect of the nation 

has been using for centuries, and to reject beautiful 
Irish %vords because they happen to -sound like certain 
English ivords, with the meaning of which they have 

no connection.) 

1f peÁ|\ beit -oíon'uvom It is better to be idle than 
'riÁ T)^oc gnótáó. doing bad work. 

" CeátfUfi CcMlteAó 5A11 beit nu\rmuAc; 
CeACjv\f\ PfiAncAC 5-dn beit to 11 roe ; 
CeAú|\A|\ 5|\é-Af.Aít)e 5^11 oeic bpeA^AC ; 
'Sm T)ÁpúéA5 nÁ pint j\d cíjC 

" Fonr old hags who are not gap-toothed ; 
Four Frenchmen who are not yellow ; 
Four shoemakers who do not tell lies ; 
There is a dozen people who do not exist in the 


a 5 ti 1 s í n . 


Y\a 1i-Vlitri|\eACA. 

Irish Numerals. 

Tlie Irish number has three different shapes in the 
mind. First, it is a substantive. Like any other sub- 
stantive, it stands either with or without the definite 
article. With the definite article it means some de- 
finite number; as An c-4on =" the one," aw *oeic = ' c the 
ten," An céAT) *oeic = "the first ten," An *odju\ CÚ15 — 
■" the second five." Without the definite article it is 
an indefinite substantive, cui5 = "a five," r>efó = "a 

Secondly, in the Irisli mind the idea of number is a 
mental instrument for counting. Then it lias in 
speech the particle a before it. A h-Aon = " one," a 
x>() = " two," a c|\i = " three." 

Every number, when thus used as a counter, has 
this particle before it. In counting, people have the 
habit of dropping, at certain numbers, from the second 
shape of the idea to the first, just as if, in English 
counting, a person were to say instead of " twelve," " a 
dozen," or instead of "twenty," "a score." 

This alternation of the Irish mind, between the two 
shapes of the idea, gave rise to some confusion among 
scholars. They thought some of the [rish numbers took 


the particle and that others did not. The truth is 
that none of them take it when used as independent 
substantives, and that they all take it when used as 
counters. I have heard a cévVO used as a counter. It 
means the lust individual of th< j hundred, whereas 
céAT) means the whole Mmdred individuals. 

The third shape of the idea is that of a counter in 
the form of an adjective, i.e., ''one horse." "two horses,' r 
'■ three horses." etc. In this method of Irish counting 
tlie first number is never used at all. We never say 
in Irish " cmv horse." We always say, Cv\pv\l, t>;Á 
Cv\pv\l, u|\í Cv\pAit, course CApAit, etc.: be^n, xk\ iiuu\oi r 
T|\í mnó, ceirjio minx, etc. 

►Sometimes, in Irish counting, the individuals are 
kept so distinct as never t<j constitute a plural. 

Cv\pv\l = one horse. 

X)S Cv\pv\t = two liorses. 

~C\\\ c.v\pv\l — three liorses. 

Ceit|\e Cv\pAt = four liorses. etc. 

SeAct, ocr, and ru\oi prefer the plural. 

Thus the mystery of pee Cv\pv\l is easily seen 

In the case of verbal nouns even peace, ocr, and 
m\oi take the singular. 

SCv\cr mbm\Uvu = seven thrashings. 

Occ mbtuxUvo = eight thrashings. 

1K\oi tubm\Uvo = nine thrashings. 

Deic mbtu\Uvó = ten thrashings 

CÚ15 bei|\bv\X) = tive boilings. 

Cjti t\\\ omúg ax) = three dryings. 

Tk\ pÁfgxvó==two squeezings. 

Cimitc = (one) rubbing. 


The learnei 

1 must take care not to be misled by the 

grammars anc 

1 their Latin terminologies. 

Those Latin 


do not fit 

our Irish language. Fhey are 

all confusion. 

tiA H-tnrhneACA. 



An uirhm -pern. 



One (the 































» >0 




























Aon <v'f pice. 



T)ó c\'f pce. 



CeACAi|\ d'f pice 



-|C. -}c. 


*Oeic A'f pice. 







This form of the numeral is a substantive and can 
have the definite article before it when the sense of 
tlie language so requires : thus : — 

An c-v\on. 
v \n T>o. 

An rj\i. 

An ceArAqi. 

The one. 

The two, i.e.,that individual 

The three. 

The four, i.e., there is ques- 
tion of a number of fours 
and this is a certain one 
of them. It is the four 
of which mention has 
been made somewhere. 

ah uin'nu as corhReArh. 


.A ti-Aon. 


A T)Ó. 


v\ r|\i. 


A ceAUAifi. 


,A CÚ15. 


A ré. 


A y eAcc. 


A li-ocu. 


v\ tu\oi. 


A "oeic. 


A li-AOitvoéA^;. 


A T)ó"óéAv;. 


A rj\méAv 


A cev\tAi|\T)éAv;. 


A 01115x^5. 


A féiT)éA5- 


A f e^ccoéAs. 
A ti-occx)é^5. 
A n^oix)é^5. 
A pee. 

A li-Aon ^'f pice. 
A C|\í a'x* pee. 
A CÚ15 A'p pee. 
A x>eic A'f pee. 


A h-xXOn xVf TMCáVO. 







Twenty -three. 





This form of numeral is used while the finger of 
the person cpunting points, for each numeral, to the 
individual which is counted. The a is not repeated in 
the compound forms. It would be impossible to re- 
peat it. No individual thing could occupy the 
position both of a *oeic and a pee, for example. 
Hence a thing could not be a *oeic A'y a pee. It must 
be a -oeic A'f pee. 

v\n uirhm a^ léiniújg^'ó, 

An c-xXonrhA'ó IS.} 
An céAT) LÁ. J 

An "oórhxvó tá. ^ 

An TMfVAtÁ. J 

An cfxírinvó tÁ. | 
v\n Cf\e^f La. j 

An ce<\t\\rr\Ai) IS. 
An ctn^rh^'ó IS. 
An f érh^vó La. 
An ^eAczrriAX) IS. 


The first day. 
The second day. 

The third day. 

The four tli day. 
The fifth day. 
The sixth day. 
The seventh day. 


v\n c-occtWxVo LÁ. 

An iKNonnvo IS. 
An "oeictYUVo La. 
(An "oeACriuvó. 
An c-Aoiim&t) LÁ T)év\;s. 
An X)a\ia IS véAj;. 
An rjmiLvó U\ "qé^g. 
An ceArniiuvó IS x>éA£. 
An cin>n'n\'ó U\ "oéA*;. 
An péfíuvó lv\ T)év\;$. 
An re.\crni.\X) Lá T)évN>. 
An c-ocurhxvú LÁ "oe^. 
.An n^orh-AXi IS T)év\>. 
An rictii.\x) LÁ. 
An c-AonttiA'ó Ló pici*o. 
An tmjm La picro. i 
An T)óni.\*ó IS picro-J 
An Cfuriuvó IS ptctt). 
An ce^cniTVA*ó IS pi cm 
An cinpn^t) L\ picm 
An fénu\T) UVpciT). 
An X)eictiiAX) IS picro. 
An u-Aontfuvó LÁ "oé^5 

Af £lC1T>. 

An *Ov\jm iv\ "oeAg An 


An rftftruvó IS "oé\A5 An 

flC ID. 

An ceAtnrhAú Lá T)éA5 An 


An T)v\Cv\x)nu\x) LÁ. } 

Xjk A "OaXCAIT). j 

The eighth day. 

The ninth day. 
The tenth day. 
The tithe.) 
The eleventh day. 
The twelfth day. 
The thirteenth day. 
The fourteenth day. 
The fifteenth day. 
The sixteenth day. 
The seventeenth day. 
The eighteenth day. 
The nineteenth day. 
The twentieth day. 
The twenty-first day. 

The twenty-second 'lay, 

The twenty-third day. 
The twenty -fourth day. 
The twenty-fifth day. 
The twenty-sixth day. 
The thirtieth day. 
The thirty-first day. 

The thirty -second day. 

The thirty-third day. 

The thirty-fourth day. 

The fortieth dav. 


"1 mbtiAgAin a t>acai*o "In the year 1840 furze 
belt) Aicion g^n riot will be without seed and 
5 An blÁc." without blossom." 

This word " ■oaca'o " should not be writen *oá pótt). 

What the people have said for centuries is -dacatj. 
The derivation, of course, is tk\ fricix). But what sort 
of English would we have if instead of the 'word we 
were to write its derivation! 

An c-Aontfuvo U\ &''f -o,\- The forty-first day. 


An t>.ajva U\ a't tjacatj' The forty -second day. 
An cjntruvo IS A y f tjacat). The forty-third day. 
An *oeicrhvVó IÁ aY t>a- The fiftieth dav. 


An c-Aontfuvó U\ T)éA5 a't The fifty-first day. 


An TK\fu\ La T)éA5 A'f Tlie fifty-second day. 


1á a ujn pcro. The sixtieth day. 

t)liA^Ain a u|\i pcm The year '()(). 

t)liA5;Ain a ceir|\e pcm The eightieth year. 

An r-AontúAT) blu\t;Ain The eighty-first year. 

A'f ceitfte pcro. 

An •oeiciiuvo btiA^Ain A'p The ninetieth year. 

ceitfie pcit). 

An r-AontiiAX) blkv^Ain The ninety-first year 

'oé-Ag cVf ceit|\e pci*o. 

An céAT)inAT) btiAtAm. The hundredth year. 

v\n r-AoniúAX) btu\t;Ain The hundred-and-first year. 

A^Uf CéAT). 


All these expressions are exactly as I have heard 
them from the mouths of the people. 

t)v\ome T)'v\ gcórhnexMrh. 
C threap. 
Aoirme -oé^. 

U|\í tunne t>é^. 
Ceiúfe "ótnne -óés^. 
C1115 -ótnne *óév\5. 
Sé -otnne "óéAg. 
Sev\cc rmtnne *óé\A5. 
Ocu rromne "óéA^. 
1K\oi t)tnne -óéA^. 
jTice *ovnne. 
T)tiine ^ttf pee. 
t)eij\c &'y pce. 
TX\c*vo xmirie. 
T)ume A^tif *Ov\Cv\*o . 
Deic irotiine Aguf tk\c.\t).1 
T)eicniúbú|\ -A'f tk\ó»vo. J 
U|\í pci*o x)tiine. 
T)tiirie Agtif q*í pcm 


A person. 
Two persons. 
Three persons. 
Four persons. 
Five persons. 
Six persons. 
Seven persons. 
Eight persons. 
Nine persons. 
Ten persons. 
Eleven persons. 
Twelve persons. 
Thirteen persons. 
Fourteen persons. 
Fifteen persons. 
Sixteen persons. 
Seventeen persons. 
Eighteen persons. 
Nineteen persons. 
Twenty persons. 
Twenty-one persons. 
Twenty-two persons. 
Forty persons. 
Forty -one persons. 

Fifty persons. 

Sixty persons. 
Sixty-one persons. 


t>eif\c -A'f Ufií pciT). Sixty-two persons. 

Deicniúóufi a'f C|\i pciT). Seventy persons. 
Aoinne x>e^ v\'p z]\\ Seventy-one persons. 

Tk\j\é45 ^-f Cf\i pcix). Seventy-two persons. 

Ufií -óuine "óe^5 a'f cjaí Seventy-three persons. 

Ceiqie pci*o twine. Eighty persons. 

T)tnne v\5Uf ceitpe pciT>. Eighty-one pervsons. 

Ocuaja A'f ceicfie pci*o. Eighty-eight persons. 

T)eicniútwf\ Av'f ceit|\e Ninety persons. 


Aomtie *oé^5 aY ceiúj\e Ninety-one persons. 


T)Áj\éA5 ^S^f ceitf\e Ninety-two persons. 

Ufvi twine T)éA5 á'f ceitf\e Ninety-three persons. 

The |\ in -Ov\f\év\£ is broad. There was a *o between 
it and the é. 

Cé<vo twine. One hundred persons. 

T)tune A^uf cé.\t). One hundred and one per- 


t)eiftc ^up céAt). One hundred and two per- 


U|Aiú|\ A'f cévVO. One hundred and three 


CeACf\df\ &'r ce<\t). One hundred and four per- 


Cin^e^ A'f cév\D. One hundred and five per- 



T)eiciiuíoiit\ A f f cév\x>. One hundred and ten per- 


tTlíle T)iiine. One thousand persons. 

Cévvo A^tif mite t)inne. One thousand one hundred 

CéAT) mite "ouine. One hundred thousand per- 

Dm tie -A^uf cévVO mile. One hundred thousand and 

one persons. 
Dm tie A5«f mite. One thousand and one per- 

Deic cé^T) mite *otun.e. One million of persons. 
Dtune A^tif x>eic cévVO One million and one per- 

mite. sons. 

pée céAT) mile xnmie. 2,000,000 persons. 
T)uine Agtif pice ce*\x) 2,000,001 persons. 

t)eit\c Agtif pice céA*o 2,000,002 persons. 

Cé\\x> A^trp pee cévvo 2,000,100 persons. 

mite twine. 
1TI ite A^tif pee cé.vo 2,001,000 persons. 

mite x) in tie. 
Deic mile águf pee cévvo 2,010,000 persons. 

mite x>tiitie. 
CéAX) mite A^tif pee 2.100,000 persons. 

céAX) mite x)uiiie. 
Deic cé.vo mile A^uf 8,000,000 persons. 

pice cév.\x) mite twine. 
Dacax) ce\vo mite twine, 4,000,000 persons. 
Ufii pciX) céAX) mile (1000,000 persons. 



Céitjve picro cé.vo mile 

CéAT) céxvo mile X)tnne. 
íílite mile *omne. 
Cév\T) mile míle -otnne. 
T)eic cé&X) mile mile 

Dtnne ^suf T>eic cévvo 

mile mile. 

neiúe *o'& gcótimeAfíi. 
Cloc mine. 
Tk\ cloic mine. 
U|\í cloc^ mme. 
Ceitj\e ctoóA mme. 
C1115 cloóvA mme. 
Sé clocok mme. 
Sev\cc cIoca mme. 
Occ cIoCa.\ mme. 
11aoi $cIoÓa\ mme. 
T)eic cíocaX mme. 
Aon cloc T)év\5 mme. 
T)Á cloic "óéA^ mine.] 
Tk\ cloic "úév\5 niineJ 
U^í ctocxx t)év\5 mme. 
tU\oí 5ctoc^ T)év\5 mme. 
pce cloc mine. ] 
pice cloc mine. J 
Cloc ^tir pice mine. 
X)v\ cloic A'f pice mine. 
~C\\'\ clocx.\ piciT) mine. 
Ceitf\e cloc<\ pcro mine. 
X\ao\ 5CI0ÓA pici*o mine. 

8,000,000 persons. 


10,000,000 persons. 
1,000,000 persons. 
100,000,000 persons. 
1,000,000,000 persons. 

1,000,000,001 persons. 


A stone of meal. 
Two stone of meal. 
Three stone of meal. 
Four stone of meal. 
Five stone of meal. 
Six stone of meal. 
Seven stone of meal. 
Ei^ht stone of meal. 
Nine stone of meal. 
Ten stone of meal. 
Eleven stone of meal. 

Twelve stone of meal. 

Thirteen stone of meal. 
Nineteen stone of meal. 

Twenty stone of meal. 

Twenty-one stone of meal. 
Twenty -two stone of meal. 
Twenty -three stone of meal 
Twenty -four stone of meal. 
Twenty-nine stone of meal. 


T)eic ctocA picit) mine. Thirty stone of meal. 
Aon cloc Dév\£ Aji prci*o Thirty-one stone of meal. 

X)S ctoic T)é^5 Ap ficit) Thirty-two stone of meal. 

Ujví cIoca T)év\s v\|\ picro Thirty-three stone of meal 


T)v\CaVo cloc mine. I t- , e -. 

rortv stone 01 meal. 

T)aóat) cloc mine. J 

The learner will perceive that in one of these phrases 
the m of mine is aspirated, in the other it is not. Here 
is the reason. If tk\cat) cloc be taken as one thing, 
it is a phrase-noun and not feminine. If the words 
he taken singly, then the word cloc aspirates mine 
because the word cloc is feminine. The speaker is 
at perfect liberty to say -oacax) .... ctoc-rhme, or 
*OAC*vo-ctoc . . . mine. This different grouping of 
the words is of course made merely in the mind. It 
need not be expressed by the voice. 


An cloc mine. The stone of meal. 

An -oá ctoic mine. The two stone of meal. 

Y\a c|\i ctoc.\ mine. The three stone of meal 

v\n u-<\on cloc *oév\> The eleven stone of meal. 


An x>Á ctoic x)é.\$ mine. The twelve stone of meal. 

TL\ cjii cloc á ne&s mine. The thirteen stone of meal 

Wa ru\oi scloCv\ Tjév.\<; The nineteen stone of meal 


An pee cloc mine, j Th _ twemy ^. rf mea) 
An -pice cloc mine. J 


An ctoc Aji f?ici*o mine. The twenty-one stone of 

An tk\ ctoic ^\fv ficro The twenty-two stone of 

mine. meal. 

11a Cfi cIoca pert) mine. The twenty-three stone of 

An u-<\on ctoc X)éA^ v\j\ The thirty-one stone of 

fici*o mine. meal. 

An x>v\ ctoic T)éA5 A|\ The thirty-two stone of 

í?ici*o mine. meal. 

Y\<\ u|\í ctoc a 'oé^s Af The thirty-three stone of 

pelt) mine. meal. 

An m\c<\T) ctoc mme. I r m £ , ' ± £ i 

lhe forty stone ot meal. 

An m\CAT> ctoc mme. ' 

An ctoc A'f *oac<vo mme. The forty-one stone of 

An tk\ ctoic A'f *oac<vo The forty-two stone of 

mme. meal. 

Í\a cjn ctoc a A y f txaCvVo The forty-three stone of 

mme. meal. 

An cf\i piciT) ctoó mme. \ 
<\r\ c|\í pci*o ctoó tinne. I The sixty stone of meal, &c. 

c. I 

X)Á r^itm^ -Aff ctoic mme. Two shillings for a stone of 

T>Á fgitm^ a}\ t)Á ctoic Two shillings for two stone 

mme. of meal. 

*ÚÁ f5itni5 Af cjn ctocA Two shillings for three 

mme. stone of meal. 

I have never heard ctocAio in these constructions. 
It seems to me that grammarians are utterly ignorant 


of the true meaning of this -10 which they are pleased 
to call " dative plural." Now. in the above example 
if the z\\\ ctoc a did not mean a given single measure 
if it meant three individual thing*, it should be 
elocAio. Here cjaÍ ctoc a is one collective quantity, and 
it is that fact, before my mind, which prevents me 
from saying ctocAib. It appears then that this -10 
expresses, not a difference of case, but a difference 
of mode. There is far more purity of language in 
the speech of the people than there is in our gram- 
mars. We have no Irish grammar. They are all 
Latin grammars. 

teAt m\ ctoice mine. 
teAU v\n tk\ cloc mine. ^ 
LeAt .\n tk\ ctoc rmne. i 
teAt tiv\ *ou]\í 5Ctoc mine. 

teAt in\ n*oeic gctoc 

teat Afi Aon ctoc x>éA5 

Ícaú An -oÁ ctoc *oe.A5 

LeAt tux *oc|\i ^ctoc 

ivoéA^ mine. 
teAt An £ióe*vo ctoc 

LeAt An -Aon ctoc a\\ 

pcm mine. 
teAr An -oÁ ótoc A]\ £icit) 


Half of the stone of meal 
Half of the two stone of 

Half of the three stone of 

Half of the ten stone of 

Half of the eleven stone 

of meal. 
Half of the twelve stone 

of meal. 
Half of the thirteen stone 

of meal. 
Half of the twenty stone 

of meal. 
Half of the twenty-one 

stone of meal. 
Half of the twenty-two 

stone of meal. 

fiom mine. 
Le^t An tmóxvo ctoc mine 

tlAirv ; Aon UAir\ ArhÁm, 
T)Á UAtri ; £AOi *oo. 
U|\í h-UAirie ; £ó crú. 
Ceicj\e 1i-uxM|\e ; pó ceA- 


T)eic n-UAif\e ; £ó "óeic. 
pee U-A1|\. 
tUij\ urn a fe^c. 

SeACt n-tiAifie T)é^5 aj\ 

Half of the twenty-three 

stone of meal. 
Half of the forty stone of 

Three times. 
Four times. 

Ten times. 

Twenty times. 

At odd times, now" and 

then, " a seldom time." 
" Hundreds of times." 

When uAif\ signifies " an hour " it has always the 
words u a } ctois" with it. Sometimes, especially in 
the case of verbal nouns, the individuals counted me 
kept so distinct in the mind as never to constitute a 
plural, no matter how large their number. 


U|\í CArwo. 
Ceitjie cajvvó. 


Sé 6 Ay At). 
Scacc 5CArAt). 
Occ scajwo, 

Y\AO\ 5CAfA*Ó. 

T)eic scArwo. 

A twist or turn. 
Two twistings. 
Three twistings 
Four twistings. 
Five twistings. 
Six twistings. 
Seven twistings 
Eight twistings 
Nine twistings. 
Ten twistings 


Aon c^|Mt) "óéA^. Eleven twistings. 

U{\í cAfAó ■óéA^. Thirteen twistings. 

]Tice c*\j\vó. Twenty twi stings. 

CévVo OAfvvó. A hundred twistings. 

t)v\inev\tru\if\ cj\í Cvvrvvo We turned the fox around 
t)é^5 v\|\ pcm Af v\n thirty-three times. 


Sometimes, for the purpose of smoothness, the word 
cevMin is introduced in counting. 

t)ó. One cow. 

Th\ do. Two cows. 

-^ | Three cows. 

C|\1 cmn rje btu\ib. J 

I Three head of cattle. 

Ceit|\e cinn x>e btu\ib. Four head of cattle. 

Aon cev\nnT)é^5 *óe btu\ib. Eleven cows. 

TL\oi seítrn t>éx\5 *óe Nineteen cows. 

. btuvib. 

pee bó. Twenty cows. 

|?éuj\ bó. Tlie grass of a cow. 

péuf\ tk\ bó. The grass of two cows. 

]Téu|\ uj\í cinn *óe btuub. The grass of three cows. 

)Téii|\ uju mbó. The grass of three cows. 
péti|\ cetúfie mbó. j 

péti|\ ceiq\e cinn t>e r The grass of four cows. 

btnub. J 

pén|\ Ó1Í15 tnbó. j 

péii|A CÚ15 cinn t>e bu- r The grass of tive cows. 

.Mb. • ' 

péti]A T>eic mbó. 1 

péu]A x)eic cinn -ue bn- ,- The grass of ten cows. 

<Mb. ; 


£éti]\ Aon ceAnn *oéx.\$ "óe The grass of eleven cows. 


Aon ceAnn r>e,\}5 is a phrase noun and therefore 

péiij\ 411 Aon ce,Ann 

*oé^5 *óe DUcMO. 
|Téu|\ c\n Aon fjó *óé.v\5 
^étijA An pcev\T) bo. 

£etij\ 11 a 1i-aou bo. 

|Tét1|\ Ail AOtl CApAlt. 

Cion tnnne. 
Cion beijvue. 

Cl011 Cf\1f\. 

Cion ce.AÚjw\if\. 
Cion ua bei|\ce. 
Cion ah ÓC11511A. 
C1011 .^n Aomne "oeAg. 
C1011 An *oÁ|\éA5. 
femm *.\n T>ÁjAé.A5. 

Cion -pice T)ume. 
Cion *otnne agtif pee. 
^ei-óm pee T>wne . 

£eit>m céAT) CAp^\t. 

The grass of the eleven cows. 

The grass of the twenty 

The grass of the one cow. 
The grass of the one horse. 
One person's share. 
Two persons' share. 
Three persons' share. 
Four persons' share. 
The two persons' share. 
The five persons' share. 
The eleven persons' share. 
The twelve persons' share. 
As much as twelve persons 

could do in one effort. 
Twenty persons' share. 
Twenty-one persons' share. 
As much as twenty persons 

could do in one effort. 
The force of 100 horses, Le* } 

100 horse power. 

2g : 


Date Due 


Syracuse, N. Y. ^ 

Stockton, Calif. 


3 9031 0116 



OTLeary, Peter. 


...ion- ca int. 

.. Jjlihl TT1 riDQll'/> laomi^ TgQO 

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